Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations in the Rise of American Power
Inderjeet Parmar unearths the advanced interrelations, shared mindsets, and collaborative efforts of influential private and non-private corporations within the construction of yank hegemony. concentrating on the involvement of the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations in U.S. overseas affairs, Parmar lines the transformation of the US from an "isolationist" country into the world's simply superpower, all within the identify of benevolent stewardship.
Parmar starts off within the Nineteen Twenties with the institution of those foundations and their procedure of top-down, elitist, medical giving, which concentrated extra on handling social, political, and fiscal swap than on fixing glossy society's structural difficulties. Consulting infrequent records and different archival fabrics, he recounts how the yank intellectuals, lecturers, and coverage makers affiliated with those companies institutionalized such elitism, which then bled into the equipment of U.S. overseas coverage and have become considered as the essence of modernity.
America was hoping to interchange Britain within the function of world hegemon and created the mandatory political, ideological, army, and institutional potential to take action, but faraway from being goal, the Ford, Rockefeller, and Carnegie foundations frequently complex U.S. pursuits on the fee of different international locations. Incorporating case experiences of yank philanthropy in Nigeria, Chile, and Indonesia, Parmar boldly exposes the data networks underwriting American dominance within the 20th century.
“Selling the USA, Short.” Colin Powell used to be secretary of nation within the first George W. Bush management (2001–2004). instantly following 11th of September, Powell commissioned the Madison road advertiser Charlotte Beers to rebrand US international coverage; she resigned in 2002. 104. Kennedy omits point out of the failure of the U.S. management to supply the protections of the U.S. structure to detainees and violations of the Geneva conference. one hundred and five. Gedmin and Kennedy, “Selling the United States, Short.” 106.
185–89; U.S. intervention in, 183–85; U.S. coverage towards, 279n21 Latin American Social technology Council, 12 Latin American stories organization (LASA), 185, 187 Lattimore, Owen, eighty five, 285n125 Layman’s advisor to Naval technique (Brodie), seventy six Lazarfeld, Paul, 282n78 League of countries, sixty seven, 94–95 Leat, Diana, five Lee, Ivy, 38, forty three LeMelle, Wilbert J., one hundred sixty Leonard, Mark, 239 Leontief, Wassily, 2 hundred Levy, Jack, 230 Lewis, W. Arthur, a hundred and twenty liberal-imperial venture, 251 liberal internationalist.
War—Its Social and monetary features, seventy five Mohammed, Mahathir, 107 Molyneaux, Peter, fifty two Monroe Doctrine, 36, 183 Montreal, 164–69 Morgan, J. P., 35, forty five Morley, M., 185 Moscow contract, 282n70 Moslem formative years, 307n122 Mossadegh, Mohammed, fifty six, 303n39 Mujica, Rodrigo, 205 MumbaiResistance, 228 Munoz, Oscar, 209 Murphy, Craig, ninety one Murphy, E. J., a hundred and seventy Mussolini, Benito, sixty one Nafziger, Wayne, 177 Nakasone, Yasuhiro, 107 nationwide Academy of technological know-how (NAS), 161–62 nationwide Bureau of monetary.
American society, together with equipped exertions and, for the 1st time, African Americans.96 The warhawks geared up black branches in Harlem and Chicago, along chapters at traditionally black universities (Howard and Lincoln). Having few connections with the black plenty, they sought to mobilize the leaders of black opinion—trade-union leaders (A. Philip Randolph), churchmen (Adam Clayton Powell), teachers (Ralph Bunche), and newspaper editors.97 The CDAAA/FFF black-mobilization crusade.
Fund, and the area financial institution. The stipulations have been ripe for American hegemony. but there have been anxieties between U.S. elites. A reemergence of isolationist opinion, the shortcoming of public dedication to everlasting American international management, and the emerging impact of communism and nationalism/neutralism, specifically in Europe but additionally in Asia, threatened to take even larger parts of the area out of the circuits of the worldwide capitalist method. it'd be tricky to “sell” American worldwide hegemony as.